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Transplantation is characterized by a collaborative effort of multiple specialties. Enhancing such experience requires a continuous interaction among all members of the discipline and collaborative team. Core to the management of transplant patients is a need to collaborate for patient care delivery, and this requires psychological safety among team members to be able to speak up and assume leadership roles as needed to assure the best patient care plans are discussed, implemented and managed. Mentoring by team leaders across disciplines will assure team members are engaged in their clinical environments and work collaboratively to achieve professional goals. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the foundation to optimize team collaboration, which uses a mentoring framework that supports skill development and professional behaviors core to patient care, clinical learning, and leadership.1


Traditionally, mentoring is thought of as a longitudinal relationship between a junior (student, administrator, faculty member) and a more seasoned individual. However, the relationship may not always take this form. Some alternative mentoring relationships may take place between individuals.2 Here are some examples:

  • Mentoring:3

    • In a mentoring program, the relationship between mentor and mentee is reciprocal. The mentor listens and stimulates reflection in the mentee to promote career development, professional growth, and/or satisfaction.

    • Mentoring is a relationship where the mentor allows the mentee to see the hope inside themselves. The mentee is someone with an identified need, with the goal of professional identity development.

  • Peer mentorship:4

    • A mentoring relationship between individuals who are similar in age, experience, and/or rank.

  • Advising:

    • In an advising program, the advisor is in control of the relationship. The advisor answers questions and gives advice, sharing their expertise and knowledge with the advisee.

  • Coaching:5

    • Coaches focus on performance related to a specific issue.

    • Mentees working with coaches will receive less time from coaches than from a traditional mentor. The coach will focus on a specific issue and/or a specific set of questions critical for success. Thus, the strategic advice from a coach is typically suited to a single issue.

  • Sponsorship:6,7

    • Sponsorship focuses on enhancing the visibility, credibility, and professional network of talented individuals.

    • A sponsor must have significant organizational influence and an ability and willingness to advocate for others regarding competitive assignments, leadership opportunities, and high-level committee membership.


  • A good mentor includes an individual who:

    • Creates a safe space

    • The mentee has respect for

    • Is altruistic

    • Is honest

    • Takes an interest in the mentee, providing both professional and personal support

    • Helps open the doors to opportunities for mentees


  • A good mentee includes an individual who:

    • Is an active participant

    • Is reflective

    • Can perform a constructive self-assessment

    • Is receptive

    • Takes initiative

    • Is responsible

    • Is honest

    • Has appreciation for ...

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