Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Annotate Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content +++ TEST TAKING TIPS ++ Test Taking Tips Remember to review lidocaine toxicity, especially the signs and symptoms and the maximum dose that can be given. Know the advantages and disadvantages of using an epidural versus a PCA for postoperative pain control. +++ What is the optimal distance above the carina for an endotracheal tube (ETT)? ++ 2 cm above the carina +++ What are the steps of rapid sequence induction? ++ Oxygenation and short-acting induction agent → muscle relaxant → cricoid pressure → intubation → inhalational anesthetic +++ What is the most commonly used technique for induction of general anesthesia in children? ++ Inhalational +++ What are the steps that both the surgeon and anesthesiologist should take during an airway fire? ++ Stop all gas and oxygen flow → extinguish fire with water/saline → remove ET tube and any foreign body in airway → perform mask ventilation until patient is reintubated → perform bronchoscopy to assess extent of airway damage. +++ What factors affect the accuracy of pulse oximetry? ++ Decreased reading—intense environmental lighting, motion, methylene blue dye, hypothermia, low cardiac output, hypotension, peripheral edema, nail polish Increased reading—bilirubin, carbon monoxide +++ Define minimum alveolar concentration (MAC): ++ The smallest concentration of gas at which 50% of patients will not move to painful stimuli such as incision +++ Relate lipid solubility, speed of induction, and potency for an inhalational agent with a low MAC: ++ Low MAC means that the agent is more lipid-soluble and more potent but slower speed of induction +++ What inhalational agent has the fastest speed of induction, high minimal alveolar concentration, and low potency? ++ Nitrous oxide (NO2) +++ Name contraindications to the use of nitrous oxide: ++ Middle ear occlusion, pneumothorax, small bowel obstruction, and any other instance where there is an air-filled body pocket +++ Which inhalational agent can cause eosinophilia, fever, increased liver function tests, and jaundice and is associated with the highest degree of cardiac depression and arrhythmias? ++ Halothane +++ Which inhalational agent has a pleasant smell and is ideal for mask induction in children? ++ Sevoflurane +++ What induction agent should not be used in patients with an egg allergy? ++ Propofol +++ What induction agent is contraindicated in head injury? ++ Ketamine +++ Which induction agent can cause adrenocortical suppression with continuous infusion? ++ Etomidate +++ First muscle to be paralyzed after administration of a paralytic? Last muscle? ++ ... Your Access profile is currently affiliated with '[InstitutionA]' and is in the process of switching affiliations to '[InstitutionB]'. Please click ‘Continue’ to continue the affiliation switch, otherwise click ‘Cancel’ to cancel signing in. Get Free Access Through Your Institution Learn how to see if your library subscribes to McGraw Hill Medical products. Subscribe: Institutional or Individual Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Password? Forgot Username? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth You already have access! Please proceed to your institution's subscription. Create a free a profile for additional features.