The pelvis consists of four regions:
- Posterior and lateral pelvic walls
- Pelvic cavity (with viscera)
- Anal triangle (perineum)
- Urogenital triangle (perineum)
As a module, the pelvis has very little surface area covered by skin and diagnosis relies heavily on imaging.
The perineum is superficial and clinical diagnosis is easier. However, this superficiality also makes investigations, such as ultrasound, simple and easy for diagnosis confirmation.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Nocturia, frequency, dribbling.
Diffuse prostatic enlargement (benign prostatic hypertrophy).
Transurethral resection if significant symptoms.
History of prostatic symptoms, cachexia, bone pain, pathological fractures.
Widespread sclerotic foci involving the pelvic bones (disseminated prostatic carcinoma).
Treat symptoms. Palliative care. Surgery for fractures. Medical treatment.
Prostatic symptoms, bone pain.
Mixed hyper and hypoechoic nodule at posterolateral periphery of prostate gland (prostatic carcinoma).
Chronic pain and swelling suprapubically.
Large benign ovarian cyst on left ovary.
Cachexia, signs of bowel obstruction, abdominal swelling, possible other metastatic sites and symptoms.
Numerous areas of intraperitoneal ‘seeding’ from ovarian carcinoma with secondary peritoneal oedema and ascites.
Palliative care at this stage.
Pain, discomfort, dysmenorrhoea, infertility.
Large benign fibroid seen in wall of uterus.
Embedded intrauterine device
Excessive pain following intrauterine device insertion, infective symptoms, dyspareunia.
Intra-uterine device seen embedded in posterior wall of uterus.