The regions of the distal lower limb include:
- Popliteal fossa (knee joint)
- Anterior, posterior, and lateral leg
- Tarsal tunnel
- Sole and dorsum of the foot
- Plantar and dorsal toe
The clinician should be very familiar with lower limb anatomy as this constitutes a large proportion of all imaging and is often due to a greater force than the upper limb.
Injuries of the lower limb affect mobility, which can have disastrous consequences for some patients.
Normal knee magnetic resonance imaging
Recurrent knee pain, joint locking, giving way and history of an old injury.
Large corticated (old) loose body in the suprapatellar recess.
Arthroscopic removal if not too big and check for secondary or associated joint pathology.
Major trauma. Check pulses!
Tibia completely dislocated posteriorly on femur with displaced transverse patellar fracture.
Urgent vascular assessment and reduction with ligament repair.
Major knee injury due to either fall from a height, motorcar accident, or other similar incident. Severe pain, swelling, deformity, and dysfunction.
Fracture-dislocation of the knee (tibia laterally on femur). The lateral femoral condyle has been driven into the intercondylar area splitting the medial tibial condyle off and displacing it inferiorly.
Open reduction and internal fixation. Check peripheral pulses.
Recurrent giving way, locking, loose bodies, or asymptomatic.
Fragment in medial femoral condyle (Osteochondritis dissecans).
Plaster, drill, internally fix or remove loose body.
Anterior cruciate ligament tear
Pain, dysfunction, effusion (possibly ...