The thorax has protective (mobile) walls around the vital cardiorespiratory
This protection prevents palpation except for transmitted input
and (implied*) movement.
The regions* that make up the module are walls* and
contents*. Impalpable contents emphasize the importance
of surface knowledge.
Where all the major viscera share a sensory supply (T4/5),
knowledge of neurosomes is the only way to truly make sense of referred
The concealed nature of thoracic viscera makes investigation
Spontaneous pneumothorax is common in young males. It is probably
related to a congenital or acquired defect. Both lungs are affected
with equal frequency. In patients over 40, it is usually caused
by chronic airways disease.
The leak may be localized if adhesions* are present
- more likely, it is generalized. The negative intrapleural pressure
becomes positive and the elastic recoil of the lung causes it to
collapse towards the hilum. An open passage between lung and pleural
cavity creates a bronchopulmonary fistula*. If the passage
closes off, air will be reabsorbed*.
If the soft tissue around the passage acts like a valve (air
sucked into the space but not expelled), a tension* pneumothorax