The cardiopulmonary status must be observed carefully and often in an intensive care setting. Distal pulses should be palpated hourly for the first 24 hours and subsequently at regular intervals. Many surgeons use low-molecular-weight Dextran infusions of about 20 mL per hour for the first 24 hours, especially if a low popliteal or tibial vessel anastomosis was performed. The patients begin ambulation on the day after surgery and many can be discharged home within 4 days. Aspirin is given for its platelet effects. Noninvasive vascular laboratory testing in the postoperative period is valuable to assess hemodynamic improvement and the success of the bypass procedure. Special attention is given to the care of the feet. All efforts should be directed to controlling risk factors, such as smoking, and careful postoperative follow-up is imperative to enhance long-term benefit. Early or late occlusion is the most frequent complication. Graft occlusion is manifest by loss of pulses, pallor, pain, paresthesias, and loss of function. Noninvasive vascular laboratory studies may be helpful, whereas repeat arteriograms will verify the occlusion. If the occlusion occurs in the early period after surgery, immediate exploration without arteriography is warranted.