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Tumor Markers

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

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Normal value: < 5.0 ng/mL (smoker).
< 2.5 ng/mL (nonsmoker).
Comment: Elevation of CEA in colorectal cancer, but also in a variety of noncolonic cancers (eg, pancreatic, gastric, lung, breast), as well as in benign conditions (eg, IBD, liver cirrhosis, chronic lung disease, pancreatitis). CEA > 20 highly suspicious for metastatic disease. After curative cancer resection, normalization of elevated values expected within 1–2 months.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

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Normal value: 0–4 ng/mL.
Comment: Elevation of PSA in prostate cancer, prostatitis, after digital rectal exam.

IBD Markers

Perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (pANCA)

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Normal value: ≤ 1:8.
Comment: 60–80% positive in ulcerative colitis; 10–25% positive in Crohn colitis.

Anti-Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibody (ASCA)

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Normal value: ≤ 20.0 units.
Comment: 5–15% positive in ulcerative colitis; 60–80% positive in Crohn colitis.

Celiac Disease Markers

Anti-Endomysial IgA

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Normal value: < 1:5.
Comment: Sensitivity and specificity for celiac disease > 95% (ie, much better than anti-gliadin IgG).

Anti-Transglutaminase IgA

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Normal value: < 20 units.
Comment: Positive in celiac disease in > 90% of cases (ie, better than anti-gliadin IgG).

Infectious Diseases

CD4 Count

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Normal value: 500–1500 cells/μL.
Comment: HIV infection → assessment of activity and treatment response with CD4 cell counts and viral load. Critical: < 200 cells/μL.

Plasma HIV-1 RNA Monitoring

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Normal value: No viral load detectable with appropriate HAART.
Comment: > 100,000 copies/mL → sign of drug resistance or disease progression.

Complete Blood Count

White Blood Cells (WBC)

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Normal value: 3.8–10.8 [× 103 WBC/mL].
Comment:Marker for acute inflammation.

Hematocrit (Hct)

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Normal value: 35–46 [%].
Comment:Assessment of blood levels.

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

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Normal value: 12.0–16.0 [g/dL].
Comment:Assessment of blood levels.

Neutrophils Relative

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Normal value: 42.0–75.0 [%].
Comment:Left-shift/bandemia is a marker for acute inflammation.

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