The stomach receives food from the esophagus and has four functions:
(1) It acts as a reservoir that permits eating reasonably large
quantities of food at intervals of several hours. (2) Food contained
in the stomach is mixed, triturated, and delivered into the duodenum
in amounts regulated by its chemical nature and texture. (3) The
first stages of protein and carbohydrate digestion are carried out
in the stomach. (4) A few substances are absorbed across the gastric
The anatomy of the stomach may be seen in Figures
23–1, 23–2, and 23–3.
Names of the parts of the stomach. The line drawn from
the lesser to the greater curvature depicts the approximate boundary
between the oxyntic gland area and the pyloric gland area. No prominent
landmark exists to distinguish between antrum and body (corpus).
The fundus is the portion craniad to the esophagogastric junction.
Histologic features of the mucosa in the oxyntic gland
area. Each gastric pit drains three to seven tubular gastric glands. A: The
neck of the gland contains many mucous cells. Oxyntic (parietal)
cells are most numerous in the mid portion of the glands; peptic
(chief) cells predominate in the basal portion. B: Drawing
from photomicrograph of the gastric mucosa.
Blood supply and parasympathetic innervation of the stomach
The cardia is located at the gastroesophageal junction.
The fundus is the portion of the stomach that lies
cephalad to the gastroesophageal junction. The corpus is the
capacious central part; division of the corpus from the pyloric
antrum is marked approximately by the angular incisure, a crease
on the lesser curvature just proximal to the “crow’s-foot” terminations
of the nerves of Latarjet (Figure 23–3).
The pylorus is the boundary between the stomach and
The cardiac gland area is the small segment located
at the gastroesophageal junction. Histologically, it contains principally
mucus-secreting cells, though a few parietal cells are sometimes
present. The oxyntic gland area is the portion containing
parietal (oxyntic) cells and chief cells (Figure
23–2). The boundary between this
region and the adjacent pyloric gland area is reasonably sharp,
since the zone of transition spans a segment of only 1–1.5
cm. The pyloric gland area constitutes the distal 30% of
the stomach and contains the G cells that manufacture gastrin. Mucous
cells are common in the oxyntic and pyloric gland areas.
As in the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, the muscular wall
of the stomach is composed of an outer longitudinal and an inner
circular layer. An additional incomplete inner layer ...