Transhiatal esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy is indicated for most conditions that require esophageal resection and reconstruction. Common indications include carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction, end-stage achalasia, and severe esophageal strictures refractory to endoscopic dilation. This approach may be used for primary resection of early-stage cancers or Barrett's esophagus with multifocal high-grade dysplasia as well as following neoadjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced cancers.
Transhiatal esophagectomy is contraindicated in patients with upper or middle third esophageal cancers with concern for tracheobronchial invasion based on imaging studies or bronchoscopy. In patients with a history of previous esophageal surgery, including fundoplication, esophagomyotomy, or repair of esophageal perforation, the surgeon must be prepared to convert to a transthoracic approach because transabdominal esophageal mobilization may prove difficult or impossible in these settings. Finally, in patients in whom carcinoma involves the gastric cardia and may require a significant gastric resection, the colon should be evaluated preoperatively and prepared for use in esophageal reconstruction.
The preoperative workup for patients with esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers includes a thorough history and physical examination and esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy for diagnosis. Esophageal nodules may be adequately staged by endoscopic mucosal resection, whereas larger tumors require endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography or computed tomography imaging for complete clinical staging. Bronchoscopy should be considered for patients with squamous cell carcinomas, lesions involving the proximal third of the thoracic esophagus, and respiratory symptoms such as cough or hemoptysis.
Before proceeding with esophageal resection, the patient's medical condition and nutritional status should be considered carefully because patients with poor nutritional status and multiple comorbid medical conditions are subject to increased perioperative complications. Thorough cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations are particularly important, and objective testing such as cardiac stress tests, echocardiography, and pulmonary function tests should be obtained liberally if there are concerns. Smoking cessation and a daily walking program should be strongly encouraged because these lifestyle modifications significantly reduce pulmonary complications. Enteral tube feedings via nasogastric or jejunal feeding tubes should be considered in patients with significant weight loss or other signs of severe malnutrition.
Patients should be administered a mechanical bowel preparation on the evening prior to surgery in the rare event that esophageal reconstruction with a colon interposition is necessary. Appropriate prophylactic antibiotics are administered intravenously prior to incision. Sequential compression devices and subcutaneous heparin are used for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Then a time-out is performed.
The procedure is performed under general endotracheal anesthesia. Adequate peripheral intravenous access and a radial artery catheter are placed to allow for adequate fluid administration and blood pressure monitoring during the procedure.
The patient is placed in the supine position with the arms tucked at the sides. A nasogastric tube is placed to decompress the stomach and aid ...