Chapter 5. Pharmacology
Rank the following compounds in decreasing order of antisecretory efficacy (going from most efficacious to least efficacious).
A. Atropine, famotidine (Pepcid), omeprazole (Prilosec)
B. Famotidine, atropine, omeprazole
C. Famotidine, omeprazole, atropine
D. Omeprazole, atropine, famotidine
E. Omeprazole, famotidine, atropine
Answer: E. Proton pump inhibitors virtually completely block acid secretion; histamine-2 blockers reduce acid secretion by 70% to 95% (usually); muscarinic blockers typically reduce secretion by 25% to 50%.
Which of the following should be used for treatment of severe diarrhea in an infant until the cause of the diarrhea can be treated adequately?
A. Attapulgite suspension (Kaopectate)
B. Cholestyramine (Questran)
C. Doxycycline (Vibramycin)
D. An electrolyte replenisher (such as Pedialyte)
E. An opiate such as loperamide (Imodium)
Answer: D. The priority is to prevent serious fluid and electrolyte imbalance until the source of diarrhea can be eradicated.
A patient presents with 15 lb. of unintentional weight loss in the last 3 months, tremor, tachycardia, hot skin, and protruding eyeballs. The drug of choice for long-term (months) treatment of this condition would be:
A. Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
B. Liothyronine (Cytomel)
E. Propylthiouracil (PTU)
Answer: E. A and B are incorrect because the patient is already hyperthyroid. C would have a short-term effect, but is not effective over several months or more. D would treat some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, but E is the superior choice because it blocks conversion of peripheral thyroid hormone.
Corticosteroids produce their effects by binding to:
A. Cytoplasmic receptors that affect nuclear expression of genes
B. G-protein-coupled receptors that activate adenylate cyclase
C. G-protein-coupled receptors that activate phospholipase C
D. Ion channels that promote depolarization of cells
E. Membrane receptors that activate tyrosine kinase
Answer: A. G-protein-coupled receptors are abundantly present in human physiology but are not used by corticosteroids. Ion channels are important for nerve ...