Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android


Test Taking Tips

Topics related to transplant are usually memorization-based.

Quickly review transplant medications and the types of rejection the night before the test.


Name the cells of origin and functions of the following interleukins:


  • Mononuclear phagocytes, T and B cells, NK, cells fibroblasts, neutrophils, smooth muscle cells

  • Proliferation of T and B cells; fever, inflammation; endothelial cell activation; increases liver protein synthesis


  • Activated T cells

  • T-cell growth factor, cytotoxic T-cell generation; B-cell proliferation/differentiation; growth/activation of NK cells


  • CD4+ T cells, mast cells

  • B-cell activation/differentiation, T- and mast cell growth factor


  • T cells

  • Eosinophil proliferation/activation


  • Mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, endothelial cells

  • B-cell proliferation/differentiation; T-cell activation; increases liver acute phase reactants; fever, inflammation


  • Lymphocytes, monocytes, multiple other cell types

  • Stimulates granulocyte activity, chemotactic activity; potent angiogenic factor


  • Mononuclear phagocyte, T cells

  • B-cell activation/differentiation, inhibition, mononuclear phagocytes


  • Mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells

  • IFN-γ synthesis, T-cell cytolytic function, CD4+ T-cell differentiation


What cells produce interferon-γ and what are its functions?

  • NK and T cells

  • Increases expression of class I and class II MHC, activates macrophages and endothelial cells, augments NK activity, antiviral

What cells produce interferon-α, β and what are their functions?

  • Mononuclear phagocyte-α; fibroblast-β

  • Mononuclear phagocyte increases class I MHC expression, antiviral, NK-cell activation

What cells produce tumor necrosis factor-α, β and what are their functions?

  • NK and T cells, mononuclear phagocyte

  • B-cell growth/differentiation, enhances T-cell function, macrophage activator, neutrophil activator

What cells produce transforming growth factor-β and what are its functions?

  • T cells, mononuclear phagocyte

  • T-cell inhibition

What cells produce lymphotoxin and what are its functions?

  • T cells

  • Neutrophil activator, endothelial activation


What was the first effective clinical immunosuppressive regimen for the transplantation of solid organs? (It was introduced in 1962.)

  • Azathioprine and corticosteroids

What are the 2 commercially available antilymphocyte globulins used for induction immediately after transplantation?

  • Horse antithymocyte globulin; rabbit antithymocyte globulin (most commonly used)

What is OKT3?

  • A monoclonal antibody that binds to CD3, a site associated with the TCR, that blocks cell-mediated cytotoxicity by inhibiting ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.