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TEST TAKING TIPS

Test Taking Tips

Topics related to transplant are usually memorization-based.

Quickly review transplant medications and the types of rejection the night before the test.

INTERLEUKINS

Name the cells of origin and functions of the following interleukins:

Interleukin-1

  • Mononuclear phagocytes, T and B cells, NK, cells fibroblasts, neutrophils, smooth muscle cells

  • Proliferation of T and B cells; fever, inflammation; endothelial cell activation; increases liver protein synthesis

Interleukin-2

  • Activated T cells

  • T-cell growth factor, cytotoxic T-cell generation; B-cell proliferation/differentiation; growth/activation of NK cells

Interleukin-4

  • CD4+ T cells, mast cells

  • B-cell activation/differentiation, T- and mast cell growth factor

Interleukin-5

  • T cells

  • Eosinophil proliferation/activation

Interleukin-6

  • Mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, endothelial cells

  • B-cell proliferation/differentiation; T-cell activation; increases liver acute phase reactants; fever, inflammation

Interleukin-8

  • Lymphocytes, monocytes, multiple other cell types

  • Stimulates granulocyte activity, chemotactic activity; potent angiogenic factor

Interleukin-10

  • Mononuclear phagocyte, T cells

  • B-cell activation/differentiation, inhibition, mononuclear phagocytes

Interleukin-12

  • Mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells

  • IFN-γ synthesis, T-cell cytolytic function, CD4+ T-cell differentiation

INTERFERONS AND OTHER CHEMOKINES

What cells produce interferon-γ and what are its functions?

  • NK and T cells

  • Increases expression of class I and class II MHC, activates macrophages and endothelial cells, augments NK activity, antiviral

What cells produce interferon-α, β and what are their functions?

  • Mononuclear phagocyte-α; fibroblast-β

  • Mononuclear phagocyte increases class I MHC expression, antiviral, NK-cell activation

What cells produce tumor necrosis factor-α, β and what are their functions?

  • NK and T cells, mononuclear phagocyte

  • B-cell growth/differentiation, enhances T-cell function, macrophage activator, neutrophil activator

What cells produce transforming growth factor-β and what are its functions?

  • T cells, mononuclear phagocyte

  • T-cell inhibition

What cells produce lymphotoxin and what are its functions?

  • T cells

  • Neutrophil activator, endothelial activation

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS

What was the first effective clinical immunosuppressive regimen for the transplantation of solid organs? (It was introduced in 1962.)

  • Azathioprine and corticosteroids

What are the 2 commercially available antilymphocyte globulins used for induction immediately after transplantation?

  • Horse antithymocyte globulin; rabbit antithymocyte globulin (most commonly used)

What is OKT3?

  • A monoclonal antibody that binds to CD3, a site associated with the TCR, that blocks cell-mediated cytotoxicity by inhibiting the function of naive T cells and established cytotoxic lymphocytes

What may be seen with the first or ...

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