Test Taking Tip
Know the order of who consents and makes decisions for a patient when he or she is not able to.
What is respect for autonomy?
When the patient has the capacity to act intentionally, with understanding, and without controlling influences that would mitigate against a free and voluntary act, surgeons ought to respect patient decisions, even when those decisions are different from the surgeon's recommendations.
Health care providers may not intentionally create a needless harm or injury to the patient, through acts of commission or omission. In addition, health care providers ought to take positive steps to remove harm from the patient.
In our context, it is defined as a form of fairness. This implies the fair distribution of goods and services in society, which are in short supply; thus, some fair means of allocating scarce resources must be determined.
DECISION MAKING—SFNO APPROACH
What is the SFNO approach?
What are the 3 major sources of uncertainty in medical ethics decisions?
Different people are involved who have competing interests.
Uncertainty or disagreement exists about relevant facts.
Uncertainty, conflict, or disagreement exists regarding ethical norms.
Who are the stakeholders?
They are ethical principles (see above), norms, or values that are at stake. Some may be relevant and others only appear to be. For assistance, reference can be made to professional ethical codes or regulations. Advice of colleagues should be sought when it is not clear what ethical principle or principles apply.
What defines the options?
JUSTIFYING ETHICAL DECISIONS
How do I justify an ethical decision?