## Chapter 40: Biostatistics

Which of the following correctly describes categorical data?

(A) Data that can be any numeric value within a specified range

(B) Data that have a finite number of categories

(C) Data that have a finite number of categories with an implied order

(D) Data that can have only one of two specified values

(B) Examples of categorical data include gender (male/female), randomization group (treatment/control), and mortality (dead/alive).

Which of the following correctly describes ordinal data?

(A) Data that can be any numeric value within a specified range

(B) Data that have a finite number of categories

(C) Data that have a finite number of categories with an implied order

(D) Data that can have only one of two specified values

(C) Likert-type scales (no pain, some pain, terrible pain) and the New York Heart Association classification of congestive heart failure are examples of ordinal data.

Which of the following correctly describes continuous data?

(A) Data that can be any numeric value within a specified range

(B) Data that have a finite number of categories

(C) Data that have a finite number of categories with an implied order

(D) None of the above

(A) Continuous data examples are age and body mass index (BMI).

It is important to know the type of data that is being collected and/or presented. For instance, blood pressure can be captured as the actual systolic blood pressure in mmHg, or it may be dichotomized into hypertensive or nonhypertensive. How the data are captured influences the summary measures and statistical tests that can be used. Certain statistical measures and tests can only be used on categorical data, whereas other measures and tests can only be used on continuous data.

Which of the following correctly pairs a summary statistic for central tendency with its definition?

(A) Mean: the most frequently occurring value

(B) Median: the middle value when the data are ordered from smallest to largest

(C) Mode: the arithmetic average of a set of numbers

(D) Confidence interval: ...

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