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Chapter 38: Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Adrenal

Which surgeon was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the “physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland?”

A. Theodore Billroth

B. Emil Kocher

C. John Hunter

D. Harvey Cushing

Answer: B

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Emil Kocher in 1909. In addition to his research on the physiology of the thyroid, Kocher’s operative methods greatly reduced the mortality risk of thyroidectomy. The Kocher clamp was designed to prevent hemorrhage from the hypervascular gland during thyroidectomy. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1521.)

What congenital anomaly arises from the formation of the thyroid gland?

A. The thyroid isthmus

B. The cricothyroid arch

C. A thyroglossal duct cyst

D. An endobronchial cyst

Answer: C

The medial thyroid anlage descends from the base of the tongue through a channel called the thyroglossal duct at week 3 to 4 of gestation. The duct normally closes after its descent, but may remain patent and is susceptible to secondary infection and dilatation, referred to as a thyroglossal duct cyst. Removal is accomplished with the Sistrunk operation which also removes the central portion of the hyoid bone. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1521.)

The arterial supply of the thyroid arises from which of the following vessels?

A. The aorta

B. The external carotid arteries

C. The thyrocervical trunk

D. All of the above

Answer: D

The superior thyroid arteries arise from the external carotid arteries, and the inferior thyroid arteries arise from the thyrocervical trunk shortly after their origin from the subclavian arteries. A thyroid ima artery arises directly from the aorta or innominate artery in 1 to 4% of cases. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1523.)

In what location, relative to the inferior thyroid artery (ITA), is the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) found?

A. Medial or posterior to the ITA

B. Lateral or anterior to the ITA

C. Passing between the branches of the ITA

D. All ...

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