Chapter 10: Oncology
The annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates among men and women are decreasing for all of the following EXCEPT
Incidence rates are declining for most cancer sites, but they are increasing among both men and women for melanoma of the skin, cancers of the liver and thyroid. Incidence rates are decreasing for all four major cancer sites except for breast cancer in women. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 274.)
Which of the following is NOT a hallmark of cancer?
A. Ability to invade and metastasize
B. Ability to evade apoptosis
C. Ability to evade autophagy
D. Ability to evade immune destruction
There are six essential alterations in cell physiology that dictate malignant growth: self-sufficiency of growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, evasion of apoptosis (programmed cell death), potential for limitless replication, angiogenesis, and invasion and metastasis. Recently two additional hallmarks have emerged—reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 277.)
Characteristics of tumorigenic transformation of cells include which of the following?
A. Enhanced surface adherence
B. Monolayer confluence inhibition
C. Acquisition of chemoresistance
Abnormally proliferating, transformed cells outgrow normal cells in the culture dish (ie, in vitro) and commonly display several abnormal characteristics. These include loss of contact inhibition (ie, cells continue to proliferate after a confluent monolayer is formed); an altered appearance and poor adherence to other cells or to the substratum; loss of anchorage dependence for growth; immortalization; and gain of tumorigenicity (ie, the ability to give rise to tumors when injected into an appropriate host). (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 277.)
The cell cycle includes all of the following phases EXCEPT
The cell cycle is divided into four phases. During the synthetic or S phase, the cell generates a single ...