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Chapter 36. Neurosurgery

Intracranial pressure

A. Is normally between 30 and 40 torr

B. Is directly (linearly) related to increasing intracranial mass

C. Cannot be measured directly

D. Is normally maintained at a stable level by displacement of CSF

E. Is often affected by changes in the size of the skull after trauma

D. Is normally maintained at a stable level by displacement of CSF

Strategies to reduce intracranial pressure can include all of the following except

A. Drainage of CSF

B. Hyperventilation

C. Treatment with mannitol

D. Trendelenburg position

E. Sedation

D. Trendelenburg position

Spinal cord injury

A. Rarely includes the use of systemic corticosteroid therapy

B. Is accompanied by initial hyporeflexia

C. Is termed complete if there is no motor function below the level of injury

D. Is accompanied by priapism and increased anal sphincter tone

E. Can cause a Brown–Séquard syndrome, with loss of motor function and loss of pain and temperature sensation below the level of the lesion, with preserved proprioception, vibration, and pressure sensation

B. Is accompanied by initial hyporeflexia

Peripheral nerve injury recovery

A. Occurs with axonal regeneration after wallerian degeneration at a rate of 1 mm per day

B. Is best treated by delayed (3 month) repair is the case of acute sharp injury

C. Should be treated by segmental resection and nerve graft in cases of apparent stretch injury

D. Occurs more quickly with systemic corticosteroid therapy

E. Is likely to be functionally successful if a neuroma forms

A. Occurs with axonal regeneration after wallerian degeneration at a rate of 1 mm per day

Pituitary tumors

A. Are typically adenocarcinomas

B. Should be treated by urgent operation in most patients

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