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Chapter 34. Arteries

Arterial occlusive disease

A. Occurs predominantly due to congenital abnormalities or anatomical anomalies

B. Includes disease caused by atherosclerotic plaques, which typically develop at arterial branch points of high shear stress

C. Is masked by collateral arterial circulation that typically has a lower resistance than the original unobstructed artery

D. Typically occurs with at least a 50% reduction in arterial diameter, which correlates with a 75% narrowing of cross-sectional area

E. Causes symptoms due to high pressure proximal to stenosis

D. Typically occurs with at least a 50% reduction in arterial diameter, which correlates with a 75% narrowing of cross-sectional area

Intermittent claudication symptoms include all of these except

A. “Cramping” in a muscle

B. Deep-seated ache in the calf

C. Can be associated with walking

D. Pain occurs at rest

E. “Tiredness” in a muscle

D. Pain occurs at rest

Acute lower limb ischemia

A. Usually is caused by increased muscular demand for blood flow in the distribution of an occluded artery

B. Can be caused by a major arterial dissection

C. Causes the five Ps: Pain, Petechiae, Pulselessness, Paresthesias, Paralysis

D. Is generally best managed by initial observation to allow recruitment of collaterals

E. Threatens skin loss before muscle or nerve damage

B. Can be caused by a major arterial dissection

Carotid endarterectomy

A. Cannot be performed when the carotid artery is completely occluded

B. Has not been shown to be beneficial for any patients in prevention of ipsilateral stroke

C. Is performed through a catheter placed in the ipsilateral femoral artery

D. Carries a 30% risk of transient cranial nerve injury

E. Has a restenosis rate of 35% at 5 years

A. Cannot be performed when the carotid artery is completely occluded

Arterial aneurysm

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