Formally established in 1924, the American Board of Otolaryngology is one of the oldest medical specialty boards in the country. Prior to its founding, specialists of the head and neck were responsible for treating both otolaryngologic and ophthalmologic diseases. In 1978, to better reflect the increase in breadth of this complex field, the board was renamed “otolaryngology—head and neck surgery.” This change came about because skull base surgery, oncology, cosmetic and reconstructive facial plastic surgery, and other forms of head and neck surgery became part of the otolaryngologist's realm of expertise. Although most physicians and patients still refer to these surgeons simply as “ENTs,” this specialty is, in reality, so much more than ears, noses, and throats. Otolaryngologists are also experts in the management of head and neck tumors (eg, thyroid and salivary gland), chronic pediatric infections (tonsillectomies, adenoidectomies, and tympanostomy tube placement), facial trauma and cosmetic deformities, and diseases of the airway and phonation (laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, palate surgery for snoring and sleep apnea).