The predominant infections seen have presented as sepsis and/or pneumonia from Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Aspergillus spp. As opposed to standard double-lung transplantation, in which rejection almost always presents in a bilateral fashion, rejection episodes in the lobar recipients have been predominantly unilateral (72%), whereas only 28% presented bilaterally. In adult recipients, overall freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is 98%, 82%, and 76% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Age, gender, etiology, donor relationship, preoperative hospitalization status, use of preoperative steroids, and HLA-A, -B, and -DR typing did not influence survival or rejection. Patients undergoing retransplantation had an elevated risk of death, whereas those patients on ventilators preoperatively had significantly worse outcomes (odds ratio for death at 1 year 4.9, p = 0.0015; overall odds ratio 3.06, p = 0.03).