Endoscopic management of benign central airway stenosis involves a combination of endobronchial therapies. As discussed previously, dilation alone generally is insufficient to provide meaningful palliation. After identification of appropriate candidates for therapy, control of the airway is the initial step. Usually, general anesthesia will be required. In some patients, though rare, conscious sedation may be sufficient. The airway can be controlled by suspension laryngoscope (see Fig. 46-1), rigid bronchoscope, endotracheal tube, or laryngeal mask airway. The choice is predicated on location, etiology, and magnitude of the stenosis. For high-grade stenoses, rigid control of the airway is preferred but can be changed to endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway once the airway has been partially recanalized. If a subglottic lesion exists, suspension laryngoscopy provides excellent access.