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Essential Features

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  • • Autoimmune thyroiditis

    • Possible initial transient hyperthyroidism

    • Possible chronic hypothyroidism

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Epidemiology

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  • • Most common form of thyroiditis

    • 0.3 to 1.5 cases per 1000 population per year; 10–15 times more common in women

    • Approximately 15% of women are affected in the United States; majority are 30–50 years of age

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Clinical Findings

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Symptoms and Signs

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  • • Enlarged, occasionally tender, thyroid

    • Atrophic stage, shrunken, firm thyroid

    • Dysphagia

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Laboratory Findings

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  • • Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    • Decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4 ) levels

    • Elevated titers of antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies

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Diagnostic Considerations

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  • • Patient may have other associated autoimmune conditions

    • Associated with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR5, and HLA-B8

    • Thyroid neoplasia should be ruled out in the setting of asymmetry or cervical lymphadenopathy

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Rule Out

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  • • Thyroid lymphoma

    • Thyroid carcinoma

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Work-up

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  • • History and physical exam

    • Serum thyroid function tests and thyroglobulin and microsomal antibody titers

    • Needle biopsy if concerned about malignancy

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Treatment and Management

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  • • Initial treatment includes administration of exogenous thyroid hormone

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Surgery

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Indications
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  • • Local symptoms of pressure

    • Suspected malignancy

    • Enlarging gland despite a trial of thyroid hormone suppression

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Medications

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  • • Thyroid hormone

    • Occasionally, a β-blocker is required to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism

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Treatment Monitoring

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  • • TSH, T3, and T4 levels

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Complications

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  • • Association with thyroid lymphoma

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Resources

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References

Kon YC, DeGroot LJ: Painful Hashimoto’s thyroiditis as an indication for thyroidectomy: clinical characteristics and outcome in seven patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:2667.  [PubMed: 12788871]
Mezosi E et al: Aberrant apoptosis in thyroid epithelial cells from goiter nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4264.  [PubMed: 12213883]

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Essential Features

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  • • Curable in 80% of cases when detected at an early stage

    • Most patients present with locoregional spread

    • Most important causative agents are tobacco and alcohol

    • A lesion that appears 3 years after a previous cancer is considered a new primary cancer

    • Potential sites include:

    • –Oral cavity

      –Bucca

      –Mucosa

      –Hard palate

      –Tongue

      –Tonsil

      –Oropharynx

      –Hypopharynx

      –Nasopharynx

      –Paranasal sinus

      –Larynx

      –Glottis

      –False vocal cords

      –External auditory canal

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Epidemiology

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  • • Approximately 47560 new cases and 11260 deaths in the US in 2008 for Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Larynx.

    • Tobacco and alcohol account for 75% of oral, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers

    • Cigarrette smoking causes 80% of laryngeal cancers

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