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The large intestine is formed by the following anatomic entities:


  • • Ileocecal valve

    • Appendix

    • Cecum

    • Ascending colon

    • Hepatic flexure

    • Transverse colon

    • Splenic flexure

    • Descending colon

    • Sigmoid colon

    • Anorectum


In this book, the appendix has been presented in the preceding chapter.


Following our presentations on the above list of topics is a special section written by Professor Ahmed Shafik. Dr. Shafik, who is chairman of the Department of Surgery and Experimental Research at the medical school of Cairo University, Egypt, is such an original thinker in regard to the large intestine and anorectum that we invited him to share his unique perspective with our readers. We are grateful to him for interpreting his research and offering his philosophy to us, and we are honored to provide his excellent work on the large intestine and anorectum to our readers. We encourage careful thought about Dr. Shafik’s innovative ideas.


Note: Some writers use the word “colon” to mean the collectivity of four anatomic entities: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons. Occasionally we will employ the word “colon” or “colonic” in that manner to mean “large intestine” (e.g. “colonic” wall for “large intestinal” wall).


The anatomic and surgical history of the large intestine and anorectum is shown in Table 18-1.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 18-1. Anatomic and Surgical History of the Large Intestine and Anorectum 

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