1. Rozovsky FA: Informed Consent: A Practical Guide, 3rd ed. Gaithersburg, MD, Aspen, 2000.
2. President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine & Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Making Health Care Decisions. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1982.
3. Merz JF: On a decision-making paradigm of medical informed consent. J Legal Med
4. Kinderman KL: Medicolegal Forms with Legal Analysis. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1999.
4a. Davis N, Pohlman A, Gehlbach B, et al: Improving the process of informed consent in the critically ill. JAMA
5. Kapp MB: Geriatrics and the Law, 3rd ed. New York, Springer Publishing, 1999, p 31.
6. Prendergast TJ, Luch JM: Increasing incidence of withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. Am J Resp Crit Care Med
7. Furrow DB, Greanery TL, Johnson SH, et al: Bioethics-Health Care Law and Ethics, 4th ed. St. Paul, MN, West Publishing, 2001, p 264.
8. Meisel A: The Right to Die, 2nd ed. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
9. Cantor NL: Twenty-five years after Quinlan: A review of the jurisprudence of death and dying. J Law Med Ethics
10. Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 110 S.Ct. 2841 (1990).
11. In re Mary O'Connor, 534 N.Y.S.2d 886, 531 N.E. 2d 697 (1988).
12. Gillick MR: Medical decision-making for the unbefriended nursing home resident. J Ethics Law Aging
13. National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws: Health Care Decisions Act 7(f), in Uniform Laws Annotated. St. Paul, MN, West Publishing, 2003 Supplement, p 143.
14. Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine: Consensus statement regarding futile and other possibly inadvisable treatments. Crit Care Med 25:887, 1997.
15. Meisel A: Legal myths about terminating life support. Arch Intern Med
16. Schmidt WC, Jr (ed): Guardianship: The Court of Last Resort for the Elderly and Disabled. Durham, NC, Carolina Academic Press, 1995.
17. Teaster PB, Schmidt WC, Abramson H, Almeida R: Staff service and volunteer staff service models for public guardianship and “alternative” services: Who is served and with what outcomes? J Ethics Law Aging 5:131, 1999.
18. Finucane TE, Christman C: More caution about tube feeding. J Am Geriatr Soc
19. Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 110 S. Ct. 2841 (1990).
20. American Medical Association, Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Code of Medical Ethics: Critical Care Medicine. Chicago, AMA Press, 2002, p E-2.20.
21. Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine: Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 29:2332, 2001.
22. Hildebrand AJ: Masked intentions: The masquerade of killing thoughts used to justify dehydrating and starving people in a “persistent vegetative state” and people with other profound neurological impairments. Issues Law Med
23. Sieger CE, Arnold JF, Ahronheim JC: Refusing artificial nutrition and hydration: Does statutory law send the wrong message? J Am Geriatr Soc 50: 44, 2002.
24. Kapp MB: Regulating the foregoing of artificial nutrition and hydration: First, do some harm. J Am Geriatr Soc
25. American Medical Association, Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations. Chicago, AMA Press, 2002, p E-2.22.
26. Furrow BR: Pain management and provider liability: No more excuses. J Law Med Ethics
27. Kapp MB: Anxieties as a legal impediment to the doctor-proxy relationship. J Law Med Ethics
28. Wiener RL, Eton D, Gibbons VP, et al: A preliminary analysis of medical futility decision making: Law and professional attitudes. Behav Sci Law
29. The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine: Consensus statement of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Ethics Committee regarding futile and other possibly inadvisable treatments. Crit Care Med 25:887, 1997.
30. Berger AS: When Life Ends: Legal Overviews, Medicolegal Forms, and Hospital Policies. Westport, CT, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995.
31. Kapp MB: Healthcare rationing affecting older persons: Rejected in principle but implemented in fact. J Aging Social Policy
32. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, Public Law No. 101-508, secs. 4206, 4751.
33. New York State Public Health Law secs. 2960–78 (1988).
34. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Chicago, JCAHO, 2003, Standard RI. 1, 1.2.2–1.2.7.
35. Curtis JR, Rubenfeld GD: Managing death in the ICU: The transition from cure to comfort. New York, Oxford University Press, 2001, p 231.
36. Minogue B: Bioethics: A committee approach. Boston, Jones and Bartlett, 1996.
37. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Chicago, JCAHO, 1997, Standard RI. 1, 1.2.2.–1.2.7.
38. Fletcher JC, Hoffmann DE: Ethics committees: Time to experiment with standards. Ann Intern Med
39. Youngner SJ, Arnold M, Shapiro R (eds): The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
40. Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death: A definition of irreversible coma. JAMA 206:337, 1968.
41. Swash M, Beresford R: Brain death: Still-unresolved issues worldwide. Neurology
43. Strachan v. John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital, 109 N.J. 523, 538 A.2d 346 (1988).
44. Boumil MM, Elias CE, Moes DB: The Law of Medical Liability in a Nutshell. St. Paul, MN, West, 2003, p 179.
45. Helms LB, Helms CM, Biggs SE: Litigation in medical education: Retrospect and prospect. J Contemp Health Law Policy
46. Noseworthy TW, Jacobs P: Economics of critical care, in Hall JB, Schmidt GA, Wood LDH (eds): Principles of Critical Care, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1992, p 17.
47. 67 Federal Register 53182 (Aug. 14, 2002), codified at 45 CFR parts 160 and 164.
48. Balsamo RR, Brown MD: Risk management, in Sanbar SS and American College of Legal Medicine Textbook Committee (eds): Legal Medicine, 6th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 2004, p 187.
49. Hickson GB, Clayton EW, Entman SS, et al: Obstetricians' prior malpractice experience and patients' satisfaction with care. JAMA
50. Way J, Back AL, Curtis JR: Withdrawing life support and resolution of conflict with families. Br Med J