1. Plastic surgery is the field of surgery that addresses congenital
and acquired defects, striving to return form and function.
2. Children diagnosed with cleft and craniofacial anomalies benefit
from interdisciplinary care at a specialized center focusing on
team care. Long-term follow-up during growth and development is
critical for optimal outcomes.
3. Reconstructive surgery attempts to restore form and function
through techniques that include skin grafting, use of muscle flaps,
bone grafting, tissue expansion, free tissue transfer with microsurgery,
4. Aesthetic surgery is surgery performed to reshape the normal
structure of the body to improve the patient’s appearance
and self-esteem. Patients undergoing aesthetic surgery present a
unique challenge. The most important outcome parameter is patient
satisfaction, and therefore a thorough understanding of the patient’s
motivations, goals, and expectations is critical.
5. Plastic surgery has been a field of innovation. The future of
the specialty likely includes advancements in the areas of regenerative
medicine, fetal surgery, and reconstructive transplantation with
composite tissue allotransplants.
The field of plastic surgery focuses on the restoration of form
and function to those who have congenital and acquired deformities. Plastic
surgery routinely addresses new problems and challenges; therefore,
the plastic surgeon must have an expert knowledge of anatomy and
surgical technique to address new challenges.
The word plastic is derived from the Greek plastikos, meaning “to mold.” Although
the term plastic surgery can be found in several medical
writings from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was John
Staige Davis who established the name of the specialty with the
1919 publication of his book Plastic Surgery—Its
Principles and Practice.
Certainly, for centuries plastic surgery operations have been
performed. One of the earliest accounts of reconstructive surgery
can be found in the Sushruta Samhita, an early
text from the sixth or seventh century b.c.
by the practitioner Sushruta. In this writing, the reconstruction
of an amputated nose with a pedicled forehead flap and the reconstruction
of the ear with cheek flaps was described. In addition, in the first
century a.d., the Roman physicians Aulus
Cornelius Celsus and Paulus Aegineta described operations for traumatic
injuries of the face.
The first textbook of plastic surgery is believed
to be Gaspara Tagliacozzi’s 1597 publication De
Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem. This text describes
the reconstruction of the nose with a pedicled arm flap. The nineteenth
century saw advances in reconstructive surgery, including Giuseppe
Baronio’s successful grafting of sheepskin. The techniques
for perfecting human skin grafting followed in the later part of
Great advances in plastic surgery occurred as a result of the
first and second world wars. Out of the fields of dental surgery,
otolaryngology, ophthalmology, and general surgery, the discipline
of plastic surgery was established. The founders of the field include
Sir Harold Gillies, an otolaryngologist, who established a center ...