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Chapter 43: Orthopedic Surgery

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Long bone fractures can be described as fitting any of the following recognized types EXCEPT

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A. Convoluted

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B. Transverse

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C. Oblique

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D. Spiral

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Answer: A

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Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from trauma include fractures of bones, damage to joints, and injuries to soft tissues. Long bone fractures can be described as transverse, oblique, spiral, segmental, or comminuted. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1756.)

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Goals of fracture reduction include all of the following EXCEPT

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A. Restore length

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B. Restore marrow integrity

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C. Restore rotation

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D. Restore angulation

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Answer: B

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Reduction is performed with axial traction and reversal of the mechanism of injury in order to restore length, rotation, and angulation. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1757.)

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Which of the following is true concerning compartment syndrome?

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A. Due to decreased intracompartmental pressure

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B. Typified by hyperesthesia

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C. Can be assessed by needles placed into affected compartment

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D. Pain relieved by passive muscle stretching

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Answer: C

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Compartment syndrome is an orthopedic emergency caused by significant swelling within a compartment of an injured extremity that jeopardizes blood flow to the limb. Increased pressure within the compartment compromises perfusion to muscles and can cause ischemia or necrosis. Patients complain of pain and numbness, and passive stretch of muscles within the compartment causes severe pain. While the diagnosis is based on clinical examination, pressures can be measured with needles placed into the compartment, which is necessary in unconscious patients who will not show these examination findings. (See Schwartz 10th ed., p. 1757.)

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Shoulder dislocations are frequently associated with all of the following EXCEPT

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A. Injuries to labrum

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B. Humeral head fractures

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C. Seizures

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D. Axillary vasculature disruptions

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Answer: D

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The shoulder is one of the most commonly dislocated joints and most dislocations are anterior. They are often associated with injuries to the labrum (Bankart lesion), impression fractures of the humeral head (Hill-Sachs lesion), and rotator cuff tears. Posterior dislocations are associated with seizures or ...

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