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Chapter 36. Neurosurgery

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Intracranial pressure

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A. Is normally between 30 and 40 torr

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B. Is directly (linearly) related to increasing intracranial mass

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C. Cannot be measured directly

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D. Is normally maintained at a stable level by displacement of CSF

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E. Is often affected by changes in the size of the skull after trauma

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D. Is normally maintained at a stable level by displacement of CSF

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Strategies to reduce intracranial pressure can include all of the following except

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A. Drainage of CSF

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B. Hyperventilation

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C. Treatment with mannitol

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D. Trendelenburg position

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E. Sedation

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D. Trendelenburg position

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Spinal cord injury

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A. Rarely includes the use of systemic corticosteroid therapy

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B. Is accompanied by initial hyporeflexia

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C. Is termed complete if there is no motor function below the level of injury

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D. Is accompanied by priapism and increased anal sphincter tone

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E. Can cause a Brown–Séquard syndrome, with loss of motor function and loss of pain and temperature sensation below the level of the lesion, with preserved proprioception, vibration, and pressure sensation

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B. Is accompanied by initial hyporeflexia

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Peripheral nerve injury recovery

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A. Occurs with axonal regeneration after wallerian degeneration at a rate of 1 mm per day

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B. Is best treated by delayed (3 month) repair is the case of acute sharp injury

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C. Should be treated by segmental resection and nerve graft in cases of apparent stretch injury

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D. Occurs more quickly with systemic corticosteroid therapy

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E. Is likely to be functionally successful if a neuroma forms

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A. Occurs with axonal regeneration after wallerian degeneration at a rate of 1 mm per day

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Pituitary tumors

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A. Are typically adenocarcinomas

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B. Should be treated by urgent operation in most patients

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