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Chapter 34. Arteries

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Arterial occlusive disease

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A. Occurs predominantly due to congenital abnormalities or anatomical anomalies

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B. Includes disease caused by atherosclerotic plaques, which typically develop at arterial branch points of high shear stress

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C. Is masked by collateral arterial circulation that typically has a lower resistance than the original unobstructed artery

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D. Typically occurs with at least a 50% reduction in arterial diameter, which correlates with a 75% narrowing of cross-sectional area

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E. Causes symptoms due to high pressure proximal to stenosis

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D. Typically occurs with at least a 50% reduction in arterial diameter, which correlates with a 75% narrowing of cross-sectional area

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Intermittent claudication symptoms include all of these except

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A. “Cramping” in a muscle

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B. Deep-seated ache in the calf

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C. Can be associated with walking

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D. Pain occurs at rest

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E. “Tiredness” in a muscle

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D. Pain occurs at rest

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Acute lower limb ischemia

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A. Usually is caused by increased muscular demand for blood flow in the distribution of an occluded artery

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B. Can be caused by a major arterial dissection

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C. Causes the five Ps: Pain, Petechiae, Pulselessness, Paresthesias, Paralysis

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D. Is generally best managed by initial observation to allow recruitment of collaterals

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E. Threatens skin loss before muscle or nerve damage

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B. Can be caused by a major arterial dissection

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Carotid endarterectomy

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A. Cannot be performed when the carotid artery is completely occluded

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B. Has not been shown to be beneficial for any patients in prevention of ipsilateral stroke

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C. Is performed through a catheter placed in the ipsilateral femoral artery

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D. Carries a 30% risk of transient cranial nerve injury

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E. Has a restenosis rate of 35% at 5 years

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A. Cannot be performed when the carotid artery is completely occluded

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Arterial aneurysm

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